Woodbury Township is located on the eastern border of Blair County. The township surrounds Williamsburg Borough and is bordered by Catharine Township, Frankstown Township, Huston Township, and the Huntingdon County line. Woodbury encompasses 32.4 square miles of land and has a population of 1,700 people.
Woodbury Township is also bordered by Tussey Mountain to the east and Lock Mountain to the west, making it part of Morrisons Cove. Both of these mountain ridges are part of State Game Lands. The Frankstown Branch of the Juniata River, Piney Creek, and Clover Creek watersheds all pass through the township.